Here's some background that might make Part I more understandable. First Things posted a short review some years ago of a detailed, scholarly treatment entitled Fundamentalisms Observed, edited by Martin Marty and Scott Appleby (U of Chicago, 1991). Here's a paragraph from the review summarizing their definition of fundamentalism:
A fundamentalism is defined as a counterattack in the name of religious tradition against the forces of modernity, a reaction that selectively recovers portions of the tradition in question while at the same time utilizing modern techniques. It is acknowledged to have a true religious spirit, and to forge a firm identity amidst crisis and change. In its nature, say the editors, a fundamentalism seeks a comprehensive system for human life and so is hostile to isolating religion from social and political life.
That captures the sense in which I referred to modern Protestant fundamentalism and Evangelicals as "modern."
For the other side of the coin, go read another First Things article entitled Mainline Churches: The Real Reason for Decline. The authors of the article present data supporting the views advanced by Dean M. Kelly in his book Why Conservative Churches Are Growing (HarperCollins, 1972), summarized here:
Kelly argued that the mainline denominations have lost members because they have become weak as religious bodies. Strong religions provide clear-cut, compelling answers to questions concerning the meaning of life, mobilize their members' energies for shared purposes, require a distinctive code of conduct, and discipline their members for failure to live up to it. Weak religions allow a diversity of theological viewpoints, do not and can not command much of their members' time or effort, promote few if any distinctive rules of conduct, and discipline no one for violating them. In short, strong religions foster a level of commitment that binds members to the group; weak religions have low levels of commitment and are unable to resist influences that lower it even further.
So I was just pulling together in Part I, in my own compressed blog style, ideas about the rise of modern fundamentalist or conservative or Evangelical churches and the decline of mainline Protestant churches which have been circulating for 30 years.